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One facet of precision medicine is the use of tumor molecular profiling to guide chemotherapeutic selection. We conducted the first prospective clinical trial of molecular profiling to guide neoadjuvant therapy in patients with operable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We hypothesized that more effective systemic therapy would prevent disease progression during neoadjuvant therapy and, therefore, allow more patients to undergo surgery.In patients with resectable and borderline resectable (BLR) PDAC, molecular profiling consisted of immunocytochemical staining of pretreatment endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration tumor biopsies using 6 biomarkers. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy was selected based on the molecular profiling results. The primary endpoint was the completion of all intended neoadjuvant therapy and surgery.The trial enrolled 130 patients; 61 (47%) resectable and 69 (53%) BLR. Molecular profiling was reported within a median of 5 business days (IQR: 3). Of the 130 patient samples, 95 (73%) had adequate cellularity for molecular profiling and 92 (71%) patients received molecular profile-directed therapy. Of the 92 patients who had predictive profiling, 74 (80%) received fluoropyrimidine-based therapy and 18 (20%) received gemcitabine-based therapies. Of the 130 patients, 107 (82%) completed all intended neoadjuvant therapy and surgery; 56 (92%) of the 61 with resectable PDAC and 51 (74%) of 69 with BLR PDAC.We report the first prospective clinical trial that utilized molecular profiling to select neoadjuvant therapy in patients with operable PDAC. Such high resectability rates have not been observed in prior neoadjuvant trials, suggesting that molecular profiling may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in these patients.