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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) negatively impacts long-term survival. However, little is known about the likelihood of death within the first year following hospital discharge. This study examined mortality among a representative sample of 3679 persons within 1 year of being discharged from any of 62 acute care hospitals in South Carolina following TBI and identified the factors associated with early death using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. The mortality experience of the cohort was also compared with that of the general population by using standardized mortality ratios for selected causes of death by age, adjusted for race and sex.