Prevalence and Psychological Correlates of Traumatic Brain Injury in Operation Iraqi Freedom

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ObjectiveTo describe the prevalence and psychological correlates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among injured male combatants in the Iraq conflict.ParticipantsA total of 781 men injured during military combat between September 2004 and February 2005.Main Outcome MeasuresMental health diagnosis (ICD-9 290–319), particularly posttraumatic stress disorder and mood/anxiety disorders, assigned through November 2006.Results15.8% met criteria for TBI (13.4% mild, 2.4% moderate-severe TBI), 35.0% other head injury, and 49.2% non-head injury. Multivariate logistic regression suggested lower rates of posttraumatic stress disorder and mood/anxiety disorders among those with mild and moderate-severe TBI.ConclusionsThese findings could reflect a problem with differential diagnosis or, conversely, a low rate of self-presentation for symptoms. Further research is needed to elucidate the psychological consequences, clinical implications, and overall impact of TBI among military combat veterans.

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