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Invasive mycoses are emerging as an important public health problem. This development has occurred in large measure due to the increasing numbers of persons at risk. In addition, advances in therapeutic technologies and in particular the development of novel immunosuppressive therapies have prolonged the period of risk for many individuals.Although rates of candida bloodstream infections have been increasing over the past several decades, recent evidence suggests this trend may be reversing. The emergence of non-albicansCandida species, and in particular C. glabrata, has been documented. Invasive aspergillosis and other mold infections have become a significant and increasing problem in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and certain high-risk groups of solid organ transplant recipients. These infections are associated with high mortality rates. Despite marked reductions in the rates of AIDS-associated fungal infections in the USA and other developed countries, the burden of these mycoses in developing countries is large and increasing.While gains have been made in the treatment and prevention of invasive mycoses, changes in the epidemiology of these infections and in healthcare practices have resulted in the emergence of new at-risk populations. A better understanding of specific risk factors will be needed if prevention strategies, such as chemoprophylaxis and environmental control measures, are to become more widely applicable and cost-effective.