Vancomycin-resistant staphylococci and enterococci: epidemiology and control

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Purpose of reviewThis review updates information on the development and spread of vancomycin resistance in staphylococci and enterococci.Recent findingsNew information on the genetic characterization of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the US indicates that each of the four was the result of an independent genetic event. New data suggest that vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus isolates, particularly those showing heteroresistance, are clinically significant. Finally, vancomycin-resistant enterococci continue to be reported from around the world. Novel infection control measures, however, may aid in reducing the spread of these organisms in healthcare settings.SummaryThe exchange of genetic information, particularly the vanA gene, between and among staphylococci and enterococci will continue to challenge physicians, microbiologists, and infection control practitioners in efforts to identify, treat, and prevent infections with these pathogens.

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