|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
To describe the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the burden of pneumococcal disease and advances in our understanding of the impact of HIV on this disease.Although highly active antiretroviral therapy has reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected adults, these infections remain far more common than in HIV uninfected adults. HIV-infected adults who smoke or have comorbidities are at particular risk. In the absence of highly active antiretroviral therapy, pneumococcal meningitis has emerged in Africa as a major disease burden with a high mortality among HIV-infected children and adults. Conjugate pneumococcal vaccine protects HIV-infected infants from pneumococcal pneumonia. In the United States, where conjugate vaccine is given to children, herd immunity has reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected adults.The pneumococcus remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children and adults, both in developed and in developing countries.