Intestinal cestodes

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Purpose of reviewThis review summarizes the biology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology for the common and rarer (zoonotic) intestinal cestodes of humans.Recent findingsMass drug application to eliminate Taenia solium carriers may have only temporary effects on cysticercosis transmission. At least two major world genotypes of T. solium have been identified and greater genetic heterogeneity may occur at the regional level. A new human taeniid T. asiatica has been confirmed which occurs sympatrically with T. saginata and T. solium in Southeast Asia. Coproantigen and PCR tests for Taenia spp. have greatly improved diagnostic efficacy and epidemiological studies. There appears to be an increase in human diphyllobothriasis in Europe, Japan and the Americas.SummaryHuman intestinal cestode infections are globally primarily caused by species in three genera: Taenia, Hymenolepis or Diphyllobothrium. Sporadic zoonotic infections caused by nontaeniids are usually food-borne or due to accidental ingestion of invertebrate hosts. Intestinal cestode infections generally result in only mild symptoms characterizsed chiefly by abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea. Most human intestinal cestode infections can be treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel or niclosamide.

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