HIV and bone mineral density

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Abstract

Purpose of review

This review details the clinical aspects and pathogenesis of low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV, discusses broad management issues and outlines areas in which our understanding of this condition is incomplete.

Recent findings

Low BMD is prevalent in HIV-infected patients, with traditional risk factors, HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy all contributing. The role of specific antiretrovirals in the development of low BMD remains controversial, but most changes arise at either antiretroviral therapy initiation or switch.

Summary

Further research is needed to clarify mechanisms underlying low BMD in HIV, whether low BMD will translate to increased fractures and to determine the correct therapeutic approach to low BMD in HIV, particularly in younger HIV-infected patients.

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