Prevention and treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection

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Purpose of reviewClostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a significant burden on the health system, especially due to high recurrence rates. Since the beginning of the CDI epidemic in early 2000s, many strategies for combatting recurrence have been explored, with moderate success so far. This review will focus on the most recent developments in recurrent CDI prevention and treatment.Recent findingsThere are two main mechanisms of CDI recurrence: alteration in microbiome and poor antibody response. Development of new antibiotics aims to minimize damage to the microbiome. Fecal transplant or other microbiome replacement therapies seek to replenish the missing elements in the microbiome. Fecal microbiota transplant is the most effective treatment for prevention of CDI recurrenceso far, but is difficult to standardize and regulate, leading to efforts to develop microbiome-derived therapeutics. A deficiency in developing antibodies to C. difficile toxins is another mechanism of recurrence. Active immunization using toxoid vaccines or passive immunization using mAbs address this aspect.SummaryThere are promising new treatments for recurrent CDI in development. Fecal microbiota transplant remains the most effective therapy for multiply recurrent CDI. New antibiotics, microbiome-derived therapeutics, and immunologic therapies are in development.

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