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Hamstring and quadriceps injuries are common in sporting activities. Sprinting sports such as soccer, football, basketball, and tennis place participants at particular risk. Treatment of injuries frustrates the medical and coaching staffs because of the severe debilitation, prolonged recovery time, and high incidence of recurrence. A review of recent literature was performed to better understand the risk factors, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of hamstring and quadriceps injuries.Injuries commonly occur during acceleration maneuvers. Study of the gait cycle reveals that injury to the hamstring typically occurs during the terminal swing phase when eccentric lengthening occurs. Age and decreased quadriceps flexibility are significant predictors of time to hamstring injury. The incidence of hamstring injuries can be significantly reduced with a sport-specific training program that focuses on improving flexibility and anaerobic training modalities that simulate game conditions.In order to better understand quadriceps and hamstring injuries we must learn more about the mechanism by which they occur, the associated risk factors, the most effective treatments, and prevention strategies. Although we have gained knowledge in each of these areas, more understanding is necessary in an attempt to limit the consequences of hamstring and quadriceps injuries.