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Pediatric bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness with significant morbidity and mortality. A variety of medical and psychiatric conditions occur concurrently with bipolar disorder. These conditions have been more frequently reported in adults. There prevalence in pediatric bipolar disorder is less known. This report is particularly relevant and timely due to the chronic nature of bipolar disorder and the profound impact on health that its treatments can bring. This evolving area needs to be understood to maximize clinical outcomes.While little has been published about pediatric bipolar disorder and its concurrent medical conditions specifically, many reports that focused on adults included pediatric subjects. Concurrent medical conditions fall into a small number of groupings. (1) Those that are related to bipolar disorder or its treatment. (2) Medical conditions that mimic mania. (3) Conditions that occur more commonly in patients with bipolar disorder, but do not appear to be related to its treatment. (4) Those that may be related to risk behaviors associated with bipolar disorder.Many medical conditions that occur concurrently with bipolar disorder in adults are also present in youth. The premature (iatrogenic) initiation of some conditions related to its treatment may pose specific ethical dilemmas for those treating psychiatric conditions.