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Bipolar disorder is a complex psychiatric condition that has been shown to carry a great degree of genetic loading. This review addresses current research in the genetics of treatment response in bipolar disorder, with a focus on findings that have shaped our understanding of the changing direction of this field in light of recent technological advancements.The recent publications in bipolar disorder treatment response have helped consolidate or improve upon knowledge of susceptibility loci and genes in the field. There seems to be an increasing trend toward functionally assessing the role played by putative candidate genes and molecular factors modulating expression in bipolar disorder, as well as a movement toward more global, pathway and genome-wide-oriented research.Genetic and molecular research to date in bipolar disorder treatment response has not completely answered all the lingering questions in the field, but has contributed to the development of a more patient-based understanding of treatment. In order to apply these findings at a clinical level, more comprehensive treatment response studies are imperative, combining recent advances in high-throughput genomics with functional molecular research.