|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The limitations affecting office blood pressure readings have spurred the development of techniques for measuring blood pressure out of a clinical environment. The increasing use of home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has allowed the identification of specific blood pressure patterns related either to a discrepancy between office and out-of-office blood pressure or to alterations in the 24-h blood pressure profiles. This review offers an update on the most recent data published on the above issues.A critical overview is provided on recent data published on blood pressure patterns suggested to have clinical relevance. These include white coat hypertension, the so-called masked hypertension, enhanced overall blood pressure variability over 24 h, a steeper morning blood pressure surge and a blunted or an excessive blood pressure fall at night.All of these different conditions have been variably reported to carry prognostic implications, and may represent specific targets for antihypertensive treatment. Their identification and management require information on out-of-office blood pressure, which suggests that self blood pressure monitoring at home or 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring should be used more frequently in clinical practice, following the indications issued in recent guidelines.