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Molecular pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni has lagged behind that of other enteric pathogens. This review summarizes advances in the biology and pathogenesis of C. jejuni.Multiple genome sequences have defined conserved and hypervariable loci in the C. jejuni genome. Interaction of C. jejuni with eukaryotic cells results in numerous signal transduction changes and release of proinflammatory cytokines. In-vivo models based on immune knockout mice have also revealed new information on pathogenesis.New information and new methods are available that should provide important tools to further understand pathogenesis of this elusive pathogen.