Gastric secretion


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Abstract

Purpose of reviewThis review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the regulation of gastric exocrine and endocrine secretion at the central, peripheral, and cellular levels.Recent findingsGastric acid secretion is an intricate and dynamic process that is regulated by neural (efferent and afferent), hormonal (e.g., gastrin), and paracrine (e.g., histamine, ghrelin, somatostatin) pathways as well as mechanical (e.g., distension) and chemical (e.g., protein, glutamate, coffee, and ethanol) stimuli. Secretion of hydrochloric acid by the parietal cell involves recruitment and fusion of H+K+-adenosine triphosphatase (H+K+-ATPase)-containing cytoplasmic tubulovesicles with the apical membrane with subsequent electroneutral transport of hydronium ions in exchange for potassium; the source of the latter is the potassium channel, KCNQ1. Concomitantly, chloride exits via the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator. Inhibition of the H+K+-ATPase by proton pump inhibitors leads to a compensatory hypergastrinemia which, if prolonged, results in parietal and enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia. The clinical consequence is rebound acid secretion which may induce dyspeptic symptoms in healthy individuals and exacerbate reflux symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.SummaryWe continue to make progress in our understanding of the regulation of gastric acid secretion in health and disease. A better understanding of the pathways and mechanisms regulating acid secretion should lead to improved management of patients with acid-induced disorders as well as those who secrete too little acid.

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