Reference Values for Range of Motion and Muscle Function of the Neck in Infants

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To determine reference values for cervical range of motion (ROM) in rotation and lateral flexion and for muscle function in the lateral neck flexors in a sample of infants who were healthy.


ROM was measured, and muscle function was estimated in 38 infants at the ages of 2, 4, 6, and 10 months.


For rotation the mean ROM was 110° and for lateral flexion it was 70°. Infants of 2 months of age had a median muscle function score of 1 (interquartile range, 1–2). Muscle function increased to score 3 to 4 by 10 months.


Infants below 1 year of age have good ROM in rotation (≥100°) and lateral flexion (≥65°) of the neck. These reference values for passive ROM and muscle function of the neck may have clinical utility in assessing and documenting the initial evaluation and progress of infants with congenital muscular torticollis.

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