The major problem in lung cancer chemotherapy is the emergence of inherent and acquired drug resistance of the cancer cells. Establishment of drug-resistant sublines and comparative investigations of such cell lines with their parental cells to determine their molecular, biologic, and biochemical properties are important research strategies. Genetic changes in tumor cells may induce changes in their biochemical properties and chemosensitivity. Many mechanisms that render tumor cells resistant have been identified, and they have provided new molecular targets for surrogate markers to predict chemosensitivity. The new categories of anticancer drugs, such as topoisomerase I inhibitors and taxanes, and non-cytotoxic new drugs, have been introduced clinically. It is important to define the molecular determinants of resistance to these drugs. The development of an appropriate model for overcoming drug resistance is one of the important issues that should be solved before carrying out further clinical trials.