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Since the discovery of the first oncogene 26 years ago, a large body of research has convincingly demonstrated that the initiation and progression of cancers involve the accumulation of genetic aberrations in the cell. Many techniques have been developed to identify these genetic abnormalities. The recent completion of human genome sequencing and advances in DNA microarray technology allow rapid genetic analysis to take place on a genome-wide scale and have revolutionized the way cancers are studied. This groundbreaking approach of studying cancer promises to provide a better understanding of the underlying mechanism for tumorigenesis, more accurate diagnosis, more comprehensive prognosis, and more effective therapeutic interventions.