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The current treatment options for advanced urologic cancers demonstrate limited efficacy. To obtain optimal clinical results, there is a need for new, individualized, therapeutic strategies, which have only recently been applied to these malignancies. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in establishing imaging biomarkers necessary for personalized medicine. This review focuses on the current status of the ‘image and treat’ approach combining molecular imaging with targeted radionuclide therapy of urological malignanciesTumor-specific targets in uro-oncology are showing promising results for development of personalized therapy using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy. The antibody cG250, which binds to carbonic anhydrase IX, is being evaluated as a radiolabeled imaging and therapeutic agent in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. 124I-cG250 PET/CT has demonstrated excellent targeting of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is a promising target for both PET/CT and radioimmunotherapy of prostate cancer. HER2 may be another potential target in bladder and prostate cancer.Tumor-specific targets and biomarkers are being studied for PET/CT and radioimmunotherapy. This may lead to development of new therapeutic strategies. However, considerable investment in new research will be required for personalized medicine to be routinely used in uro-oncology.