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We evaluated determinants of serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in 3,106 schoolchildren who participated in a community survey. We administered a brief questionnaire and measured height, weight, and tasting serum lipid concentrations. Family history of hypercholesterolemia and body mass index were strong determinants of lipid and lipoprotein levels.Results for specific foods were not always what would have been expected based on their contents of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Our findings point to the need for more detailed studies of the effects of specific foods, especially cheeses, milk, and whole grain bread, on the entire lipoprotein profile of children.