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Understanding the associations between fruit and vegetable intake and other health behaviors is important for properly interpreting the rapidly growing number of studies that link low intakes of fruits and vegetables to the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. To examine the association between fruit and vegetable intake and behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases, we analyzed data from a population-based behavioral risk factor survey. Data were collected in 1990 from 21,892 adults in 16 states by a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Respondents answered questions about behaviors related to chronic disease risk, including their frequency of intake of fruits and vegetables, using a six-item questionnaire. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was lowest among those who also reported that they were sedentary, heavy smokers, heavy drinkers, or had never had their blood cholesterol checked. Because fruit and vegetable intake covaries with several other chronic disease risk factors, it is important to account for possible confounding between fruit and vegetable intake and other behaviors in etiologic studies of the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease.