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In a time series study, air pollution was associated with specific cardiovascular causes of death. Deaths due to heart failure (ICD-9 428), arrhythmia (ICD-9 427), cerebrovascular causes (ICD-9 430–436), and thrombocytic causes (ICD-9 415.1, 433–4, 444, 452–3) were more strongly associated with air pollution than cardiovascular deaths (ICD-9 390–448) in general. Excess relative risks were 2.5 to 4 times larger for these categories than for total cardiovascular disease mortality. Heart failure deaths, which made up 10% of all cardiovascular deaths, were found to be responsible for about 30% of the cardiovascular deaths related to particulate matter, SO2, CO, and NO2.