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Acute urinary tract infection is one of the most common infections seen in primary care.We conducted a nested case-control study among a cohort of 519 women, ages 15–29 years, enrolled in a contraceptive acceptability study to examine whether recent use of male condoms increases urinary tract infection risk.One hundred sixty-five incident urinary tract infections were identified during 12-month follow-up periods in a cohort study that was conducted between 1996 and 1999. After exclusions for urinary tract infection recurrences, pregnancy, antibiotic use, diabetes, diaphragm/cervical cap use, or urinary tract abnormalities, there were 100 cases and 200 controls. Compared with women not using barrier methods (and after adjustment for age, urinary tract infection history, hormonal method use, and frequency of sex) the odds ratio (OR) for any reported use of condoms coated with spermicide (Nonoxynol-9) in the previous 30 days was 2.8 (95% [confidence interval] CI = 1.2–6.5). The OR was 11.5 (95% CI = 2.5–53) for exclusive Nonoxynol-9–coated condom use. The OR for exclusive use of non-Nonoxynol-9–coated condoms was 7.4 (95% CI = 1.6–35).In this study, use of male condoms was associated with increased urinary tract infection risk; the largest risk was associated with exclusive condom use and use of Nonoxynol-9–coated condoms.