Anatomical Variations of Nasal Turbinates

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After the widespread use of endoscopic sinus surgery and paranasal sinus computed tomography, many variations of nasal turbinates have been described. In addition to the most common one-middle turbinate pneumatization (concha bullosa)-superior and inferior turbinate pneumatizations have also been described. Secondary and accessory middle turbinates that can mimic real middle turbinate are anomalies described in recent years. Paradoxical middle turbinate and bifid inferior turbinate are very rarely encountered anomalies and can be easily recognized in paranasal tomography but can be overlooked by endoscopical examination. In the present study, the computed tomography images of 384 patients were evaluated for nasal turbinate variations, as well as their relations to mucosal pathologies. The most frequent variation was found to be concha bullosa; the least frequent one was found to be bifid inferior turbinate. In 1 of our patients, 5 of the 6 turbinates were found to have pneumatization, which is extremely rarely encountered in the literature. In this study, the prevalence of the variations of the turbinates and their association with chronic rhinosinusitis were investigated.

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