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This prospective cohort study assessed the effect of bone quality on the primary and secondary stability of single short implants placed in the posterior region.A total of 39 short implants (4.1 × 6-mm long) were placed in the posterior region of the maxilla or mandible in 18 patients. Bone quality was classified into type I, II, III, or IV as assessed intrasurgically. Primary implant stability was measured with insertion torque, damping capacity (PTV values), and resonance frequency analysis (ISQ values). Secondary stability was measured by ISQ and PTV at abutment installation. Data were analyzed by using repeated-measures ANOVA and Tukey's test, Kruskall–Wallis test, and Spearman correlation tests.Implants placed in bone type IV had significant lower insertion torque and ISQ values as well as higher PTV values than in bone types I to II (P < 0.05). The mean ISQ values were higher at abutment installation than at implant placement (P < 0.05), regardless the bone type. The assessment methods of implant stability showed a moderate correlation.Bone quality influences both the primary and secondary stability of single short implants in the posterior region.