Quantification of Microsurgical Anatomy in Three-Dimensional Model: Transfrontal Approach for Anterior Portion of the Thalamus

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The thalamus located in the deep site of cerebrum with the risk of internal capsule injury during operation. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomy for exposure and injury using simulative surgical corridor of 3-dimensional model. The 3-dimensional anatomy model of thalamus in cerebrum was created based on magnetic resonance imaging performed for 15 patients with trigeminal neuralgia. The midpoint of line between anterior edge and top of thalamus was the target exposed. Axis connecting the target with the anterior edge and top of caudate head was used to outline the cylinder, respectively, simulating surgical corridors 1 and 2 of transfrontal approach. Cerebral tissues involved in the corridors were observed, measured, and compared. Incision of cortex was made on the anterior portion of inferior frontal gyrus through corridor 1 and middle frontal gyrus through corridor 2. Both of the 2 corridors passed the caudate nucleus, the anterior limb and genu of internal capsule, ultimately reached the upper anterior portion of thalamus. The volumes of white matter, caudate head, and thalamus in the corridor 1 were more than those in corridor 2. Conversely, the volumes of cortex, internal capsule in corridor 2 were more than those in corridor 1. In conclusion, surgical anatomy-specific volume is helpful to postulate the intraoperative injury of transfrontal approach exposing anterior portion of the thalamus. The detailed information in the quantification of microsurgical anatomy will be used to develop minimally invasive operation.

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