Imaginology Tridimensional Study of Temporomandibular Joint Osseous Components According to Sagittal Skeletal Relationship, Sex, and Age

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Objective:To assess the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osseous components morphology and the condyle position in patients with different sagittal skeletal relationships, sex, and age, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).Methods:The CBCT images of 180 asymptomatic patients (60 class I, 60 class II, and 60 class III) were assessed retrospectively. Groups were also divided according to age (<40 years, n = 90; ≥40 years, n = 90) and sex (male, n = 90; female, n = 90). Right- and left-sided TMJ spaces, articular eminence inclination (AEI) and height (AEH), thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa (TRGF) and the anteroposterior position of the condyle in glenoid fossa were evaluated. Differences were tested using the analysis of variance, Tukey and t-tests (P < 0.05).Results:For condylar position, no differences were found between sex and age groups, but spatial differences existed among skeletal classes. Significant differences were found between the right and left angular position in patients with malocclusion. Class II individuals presented lower anterior articular spaces. The condyle-glenoid fossa relationship presented a moderate correlation of bilaterality. The AEI and AEH were significant lower in class III individuals and class I patients presented the lowest values for TRGF. The values of AEH, TRGF and of all joint spaces of males were higher. In individuals over the age of 40 years, the AEI and AEH measurements were significant greater.Conclusion:Sagittal skeletal relationships have a significant effect on condyle position, AEI, and AEH. The eminence inclination and height and TRGF are influenced by sex and age.

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