This review summarizes the recent literature examining the relationship between endometriosis and infertility. It is clear that the advanced stage of the disease and the mechanical disruption of the pelvic anatomy may cause infertility. The link between early stage endometriosis and infertility remains a source of controversy. Management plans must be individualized contingent upon the stage of disease, the age of the patient and the duration of infertility. The preponderance of data suggests that ablative therapy at the time of laparoscopy is as good as, or superior to expectant or medical therapy. With the exception of IVF/ET, ovarian suppression with GnRH agonists is not warranted in endometriosis-associated infertility. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with IUI is appropriate therapy in women with minimal-to-mild and surgically corrected endometriosis.