Ovarian endometriosis: from pathogenesis to surgical treatment

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Purpose of reviewThis review analyzes the literature on ovarian endometrioma, examining the controversies on pathogenesis, malignant transformation and surgical therapy.Recent findingsRecent literature reflects the necessity of clearly defining the ethiologic and pathologic factors that determine the origin of ovarian endometriosis and explain the increase in the condition with the prospect of developing effective prevention therapy. The possibility that ovarian endometriomas undergo malignant transformation is widely reported in the literature. Recent studies underline the importance of detecting histological differences in endometriosis (hyperplasia and atypia) and several studies of molecular biology support the theory of genetic alterations interfering with malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis.SummaryThe surgical approach must take into account all this information and, when the therapy is conservative, complete excision of the disease must be laparoscopically performed without affecting the healthy ovarian tissue.

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