Ethical challenges in providing noninvasive prenatal diagnosis


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Abstract

Purpose of reviewNoninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can potentially allow early detection of fetal genetic disorders, sex, other nonmedical traits, and paternity. We review ethical concerns associated with the imminent introduction of this testing.Recent findingsThere has been inadequate scientific and medical review of some NIPD tests under development or already available as direct-to-consumer products. Test introduction is largely unregulated and this has prompted calls for greater oversight. As a replacement for current prenatal screening and diagnosis, NIPD may not necessarily identify the same spectrum of disorders. Ethicists are also concerned how women can receive adequate pretest counseling and provide a truly informed consent. Widespread use of NIPD for minor disorders, predispositions, sex, normal human variation and paternity could result in a trivialization of pregnancy termination. Other concerns include the equitable access to testing by all population subgroups. NIPD has the potential to significantly reduce the prevalence of some genetic disorders and thereby change public attitudes about the handicapped and their families.SummaryStriking the correct balance between providing only worthwhile testing and ensuring individual patients' reproductive choice will be a major challenge and it is important to begin to address the many ethical issues that NIPD raises.

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