A single nucleotide polymorphism c.-1639G>A in the promoter region of vitamin K-epoxide reductase (VKORC1) gene has been found to account for most of the variability in response to oral vitamin K antagonist (VKA). Our aim was to study the effect of c.-1639G>A polymorphism on the acenocoumarol dosage requirements in a group of patients under stable anticoagulation, and to estimate the variability in response to VKA. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 200 stable anticoagulation patients followed from the initiation of VKA. Out of 43 low-dose patients, 40 (93%) carried the A allele. The A allele was less frequent in the group of 30 patients requiring high VKA dose; among these patients 13 (43.3%) carried the A allele in the heterozygous form and none of them carried AA genotype. Patients with GG genotype required 2.6 times higher dose than patients carriers of AA genotype (P < 0.0001). Carriers of AA genotype were more likely to be overanticoagulated during follow-up after initiation of VKA when compared with carriers of the GA and GG genotypes (P < 0.0001). Patients with GG genotype spent more time below therapeutic range compared with patients carriers of AA (P = 0.0328) and GA genotype (P < 0.0001). VKORC1 c.-1639G>A polymorphism significantly influenced VKA dose and represented a good predictor of individuals predisposed to unstable anticoagulation. Pharmacogenetic testing could predict a high risk of overdose among 28.5% of our patients, carriers of AA genotype, before the initiation of anticoagulation.