THE present study objectively evaluated the efficacy of oral 5 mg day-1 melatonin in advancing the sleep-wake rhythm in patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Six patients underwent ambulatory sleep monitoring for 72 h before, and 48 h after 1 month of melatonin treatment. In each patient melatonin was administered on the basis of his own estimated dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) delay. Mean advances in sleep onset time of 115 min, and in final awakening hour of 106 min were found after treatment, with no significant changes in sleep architecture parameters. Our study objectively confirms previous data obtained by a sleep-wake subjective diary on the efficacy of melatonin DSPS.