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THE present study investigated whether the medial septal nucleus controls theta-correlated unit activity in the entorhinal cortex (EC), as it does in the hippocampus. Single neurones were recorded from the medial EC of rats as they ran on a linear track or chased food pellets on a small platform. The most prominent pattern of cell activity observed was burst firing occurring near the peaks of the ongoing dentate gyrus theta rhythm. This rhythmic unit activity was abolished by microinjections of lignocaine into the medial septal nucleus, but was resistant to cholinergic blockade.