TELENCEPHALIN (TLCN) is a cell adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily whose expression is restricted to neurons within the most highly developed brain segment, telencephalon. Immunoelectronmicroscopic study revealed that in the hippocampal CA1 region, TLCN was localized at the surface membrane of postsynaptic spines of pyramidal cell dendrites but not at that of axonal terminals. Blocking of TLCN function using anti-TLCN antibody or recombinant soluble TLCN protein caused a striking suppression of the long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses. The suppression was observed even when the blocking was initiated immediately after the tetanic stimuli. These observations suggest a role for TLCN-mediated cell—cell interactions as a key step in the development of LTP.