Since D-aspartate stimulates prolactin and LH release, our objective was to determine whether D-aspartate modifies the release of hypothalamic and posterior pituitary factors involved in the control of their secretion and whether its effects on these tissues are exerted through NMDA receptors and mediated by nitric oxide. In the hypothalamus, D-aspartate stimulated luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and GABA release and inhibited dopamine release through interaction with NMDA receptors. It increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and its effects on LHRH and hypothalamic GABA release were blunted when NOS was inhibited. In the posterior pituitary gland, D-aspartate inhibited GABA release but had no effect on dopamine or α-MSH release. We report that D-aspartate differentially affects the release of hypothalamic and posterior pituitary factors involved in the regulation of pituitary hormone secretion.