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Docetaxel is the standard first-line chemotherapy for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Until recently, there was no standard therapy after failure of docetaxel treatment. Cabazitaxel has been shown to improve overall survival in this setting. As a result, the treatment paradigm for mCRPC is changing rapidly. The improved survival shown with cabazitaxel provides an important new opportunity to treat men with mCRPC after docetaxel treatment. Despite the toxicity recorded in the pivotal study, subsequent trials have shown that cabazitaxel is a safe drug. Patient selection and the optimal interval between prior docetaxel treatment and cabazitaxel remain the critical issues. According to a subanalysis of the various studies discussed in this review, there is a patient profile that will probably benefit from use of cabazitaxel after docetaxel failure. Cabazitaxel represents a new treatment option for patients with prostate cancer.