Resistance profile of a neutralizing anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, KD-247, that shows favourable synergism with anti-CCR5 inhibitors

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Background:The high-affinity humanized monoclonal antibody (MAb) KD-247 reacts with a tip region in gp120-V3 and cross-neutralizes primary isolates with a matching neutralization sequence motif.Methods:We induced an HIV-1 variant that was resistant to KD-247 by exposing the JR-FL virus to increasing concentrations of KD-247 in PM1/CCR5 cells, which expressed high levels of CCR5 in vitro. We determined the amino acid sequence of the gp120-encoding region of the JR-FL escape mutant from KD-247. To confirm that this substitution was responsible for the KD-247-resistance, a single-round replication assay was performed. We further evaluated the anti-HIV-1 interactions between KD-247 and various CCR5 inhibitors in vitro.Results:At passage 8 of the culture in the presence of 1000 μg/ml KD-247, one amino acid substitution, Gly to Glu at position 314 (G314E), was identified in the V3-tip of gp120. A pseudotyped virus with the G314E mutation was highly resistant to KD-247. Unexpectedly, this mutant virus was sensitive to CCR5 inhibitors, RANTES, recombinant human soluble CD4 (rsCD4) and an anti-CCR5 MAb, but resistant to an anti-CD4 MAb, compared with the wild-type virus. We also found that combinations of KD-247 and CCR5 inhibitors were highly synergistic.Conclusions:The present data suggest that KD-247 has certain advantages for possible passive immunotherapy. They are: high concentrations of KD-247 are needed for viral acquisition of KD-247 resistance; the escape variants are more sensitive to CCR5 inhibitors and rsCD4; and there are high levels of synergism between KD-247 and CCR5 inhibitors at all concentrations tested.

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