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The influence of HIV infection on the risk of diabetes is unclear. We determined the association and predictors of prevalent diabetes mellitus in HIV infected and uninfected veterans.We determined baseline prevalence and risk factors for diabetes between HIV infected and uninfected veterans in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of diabetes in HIV infected and uninfected persons.We studied 3227 HIV-infected and 3240 HIV-uninfected individuals. HIV-infected individuals were younger, more likely to be black males, have HCV coinfection and a lower BMI. HIV-infected individuals had a lower prevalence of diabetes at baseline (14.9 vs. 21.4%, P < 0.0001). After adjustment for known risk factors, HIV-infected individuals had a lower risk of diabetes (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.72–0.97). Increasing age, male sex, minority race, and BMI were associated with an increased risk. The odds ratio for diabetes associated with increasing age, minority race and BMI were greater among HIV-infected veterans. HCV coinfection and nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy were associated with a higher risk of diabetes in HIV-infected veterans.Although HIV infection itself is not associated with increased risk of diabetes, increasing age; HCV coinfection and BMI have a more profound effect upon the risk of diabetes among HIV-infected persons. Further, long-term ARV treatment also increases risk. Future studies will need to determine whether incidence of diabetes mellitus differs by HIV status.