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The evolution of HIV-1 is largely shaped by the cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response of the host as encoded by the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Certain HLA-B alleles can delay disease progression, but it is uncertain whether this protection will sustain or whether the virus is in the process of adaptation. In The Netherlands, HLA-B27 is moderately prevalent (approximately 8–16% of HLA-B alleles). If adaptation to HLA-B alleles is in progress, virus strains carrying escape mutations to HLA-B27 should appear in the epidemic by now.A subtype B HIV-1 strain carrying a HLA-B27 CTL-escape mutation in the main Gag-p24 KK10 epitope, R264G, together with a compensatory mutation outside this epitope, E260D, was detected in four patients from Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by sequence analysis of the gag gene. The patients were a drug user and three men who have sex with men, and were infected with HIV-1 between 2002 and 2008.Characterization and evolutionary analysis of the HIV-1 CTL-escape strain was done by sequence analysis of serial blood plasma samples.The mutations involved were stable during follow-up and after transmission, also in two individuals lacking HLA-B27.The finding that a stable HLA-B27 CTL-escape strain is circulating in The Netherlands has important implications for the understanding of virus–host interactions and vaccine design alike. Vaccines targeted at inducing a CTL response might easily be circumvented by the virus. Also, patients carrying protective HLA alleles might not be protected anymore from disease progression in the future.