Immune and virological benefits of 10 years of permanent viral control with antiretroviral therapy

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The effects of a 10-year control of HIV replication without viral blips with antiretroviral therapy were examined in progressors. CD4 cell counts did not plateau but showed a continuous increase until the 10th year. Ultrasensitive techniques showed very low plasma HIV RNA and cell-associated DNA levels. Robust memory T cell responses to HIV-p24 were higher than in 3-year treated patients and comparable to those of Elite controllers, whereas interferon-γ-producing HIV-specific T cells were infrequent. Long-term and efficient antiretroviral therapy provides continuous benefits both on the immune system and on the HIV reservoirs.

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