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The relative success of liver transplantation in those with HIV compared to HIV-uninfected individuals remains a point of intense debate. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of liver transplantation in HIV-hepatitis co-infected patients using a meta-analysis and individual patient data meta-analysis as a synthetic cohort.We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, AIDSLINE (inception to 2010), AMED, CINAHL, TOXNET, Development and Reproductive Toxicology, Hazardous Substances Databank, Psych-info and relevant conferences. We included cohort studies and individual case-reports evaluating survival of co-infected transplant patients. We abstracted data on cohort and case demographics and outcomes. We pooled cohorts using a random-effects analysis and created a synthetic cohort of cases using individual patient data. We confirmed this with the pooled cohort analysis.We included 15 cohort studies and 49 case series with individual patient data. At 12 months, 84.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 81.1–87.8%] of patients had survived. Within the HIV-infected population evaluated, HIV–hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection was associated with optimal survival. In an adjusted model, individuals positive for HBV were 8.28 (95% CI 2.26–30.33) times more likely to survive when compared to those without HBV. Further, individuals with an undetectable HIV viral load at the time of transplantation were 2.89 (95% CI 1.41–5.91) times more likely to survive when compared to those with detectable HIV viremia. Hepatitis C virus was not a predictor of patient survival when adjusted for by other key predictors [0.54 (95% CI 0.17–1.80)].