To compare small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight in children born to women with perinatally acquired HIV (PAH) vs. those with behaviorally acquired HIV (BAH).Design:
Retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected pregnant women who received care and delivered a live born at a single hospital in New York City from January 2004 to April 2011.Methods:
We collected data via chart review on demographics, behavioral risk factors, HIV clinical markers, antiretroviral therapy (ART), mode of HIV acquisition, and pregnancy outcomes on study participants. We compared rates of these exposures among participants by method of HIV acquisition. Generalized Estimating Equation was applied to evaluate the effect of HIV acquisition type on SGA birth weight, adjusting for potential confounders.Results:
Of 87 live births evaluated, 17 were born to 14 women with PAH. Overall, 20 (23%) were SGA. Eight of these SGA neonates were born preterm. Live births to women with PAH were more likely to be born SGA in our unadjusted analysis [odds ratio (OR) = 4.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.38–12.41). After adjusting for mother's age, substance use during pregnancy, nadir CD4 cell count during pregnancy, viral suppression at delivery, and second-line ART use during pregnancy, this relationship persisted with an adjusted OR of 5.7 (95% CI = 1.03–31.61).Conclusion:
In comparison to infants born to women with BAH, infants born to women with PAH were at high risk for compromised intrauterine growth. Future studies are warranted to determine possible causal mechanisms.