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Cryptococcal meningitis in Africa is associated with up to 70% mortality at 3 months and 500 000 deaths annually. We examined strategies to improve on fluconazole (FLU) monotherapy: addition of flucytosine (5-FC) and/or addition of short-course amphotericin B (AmB).In step 1, previously reported, patients were randomized to receive FLU 1200 mg per day with or without 5-FC 100 mg/kg per day for 14 days. In step 2, 43 patients were similarly randomized, with addition of AmB 1 mg/kg per day for 7 days to both arms. After 2 weeks, patients received FLU monotherapy and were followed to 10 weeks. The primary endpoint was rate of clearance of infection (early fungicidal activity, EFA). Secondary endpoints related to safety and mortality.Forty patients (25% with Glasgow Coma Scale <15) were analyzed. EFA for the triple combination arm was greater than that for AmB–FLU: −0.50 ± 0.15 log CFU/day vs. −0.38 ± 0.19 log colony forming units per day (P = 0.03); and greater than that for step 1 with FLU–5-FC (−0.28 ± 0.17) or FLU alone (−0.11 ± 0.09). Combined analysis across steps revealed that addition of 5-FC and AmB had significant, independent additive effects on EFA, with trends toward fewer early deaths with addition of 5-FC (4/41 vs. 11/39, P = 0.05) and fewer deaths overall with addition of AmB (13/39 vs. 20/40, P = 0.1).Addition of 5-FC and short-course AmB to high-dose FLU significantly enhanced EFA and may be associated with favorable trends in survival. Both these strategies should be tested in a larger phase III study.