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Greenberg E, Treger I, Ring H: Rehabilitation outcomes in patients with brain tumors and acute stroke: Comparative study of inpatient rehabilitation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2006;85:568–573.To investigate functional outcomes after hospital rehabilitation of patients surviving craniotomy for primary brain tumor excision compared with poststroke patients.The database of the Neurological Rehabilitation Department “C” of Loewenstein Rehabilitation Center was used to investigate primary brain tumors and first ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted for hospital rehabilitation during an 11-yr period, between January 1993 and August 2004. Particular attention was paid to age and sex distribution, onset-to-admission interval, length of stay, functional status at admission and discharge, functional gain (ΔFIM™ change) as measured by the FIM™ instrument.A total of 168 patients with craniotomy for primary brain tumor excision (128 intracranial meningiomas and 40 cerebral gliomas) and 1660 first-stroke patients were admitted to the department for rehabilitation during the study period. Mean patient age was 59.9 yrs in meningioma group, 54.1 yrs in the glioma group, and 60.4 yrs in the stroke group. In the meningioma and stroke groups, male patients were in the majority (62 and 70%); in the glioma group, there was equal sex distribution. On average, patients were admitted to rehabilitation treatment 13 days after meningioma excision, 34 days after glioma operation, and 21.6 days after stroke. Functional variables during inpatient rehabilitation were found to be similar in the all groups. Average FIM™ rating at admission was 80.07 in the meningioma group, 68.2 in the glioma group, and 70.4 in the stroke group. Average discharge FIM™ rating was 90.3 for patients with meningiomas, 80.7 for patients with gliomas, and 87.8 for stroke patients. Functional gain was 17.9 for meningioma patients, 17.2 for glioma patients, and 21.8 for stroke patients. Average length of stay was 24 days for the meningioma group, 23 days for the glioma group, and 75.4 days for stroke patients; 88.1% of stroke patients, 91.7% of meningioma patients, and 82.7% of glioma patients were discharged to their homes, and 5.4, 3.4, and 8.6%, respectively, were discharged to nursing homes.Patients with brain tumors can achieve good functional outcomes with a shorter length of stay.