From the Departments of Neuropsychology (RAH, LSB) and Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (JV), Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
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ObjectiveThe aims of the current study were to characterize the demographic and clinical presentation of pediatric patients diagnosed with anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis who require inpatient rehabilitation, to examine early functional outcomes, and to investigate predictors of early recovery.DesignA retrospective chart review was conducted for 27 pediatric patients diagnosed with anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis who received intensive inpatient neurorehabilitation.ResultsOn average, patients were 10.6 yrs of age (range, 2–18 yrs) at the time of symptom onset. Average time to treatment from symptom onset was 27.2 days (range, 5–91 days). Patients displayed significant improvements between admission and discharge Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) Developmental Functional Quotient (DFQ) scores across patients (P < 0.01). Mean Functional Independence Measure for Children Total Developmental Functional Quotient score at admission was 28.6 (range, 15.0–62.6) and at discharge was 54.3 (range, 14.2–91.9). Younger age at onset, seizures, and number of treatments received were associated with worse functional outcomes at discharge. Time to initiate treatment was not found to be associated with early functional outcomes.ConclusionPediatric patients diagnosed with anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis displayed significant functional gains during inpatient rehabilitation, despite persistent functional deficits at discharge, suggesting the need for ongoing monitoring and intervention.To Claim CME CreditsComplete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCMECME ObjectivesUpon completion of this article, the reader should be able to (1) Recognize the clinical presentation of anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in pediatric patients, (2) Appreciate the role of rehabilitation in the care of the pediatric patient with anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and (3) Identify demographic and clinical variables that predict poor functional outcomes after rehabilitation in pediatric patients with anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.LevelAdvanced.AccreditationThe Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.