ADCS Prevention Instrument Project: Assessment of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Community-dwelling Elderly Individuals in Dementia Prevention Clinical Trials

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Abstract

Background

In primary prevention trials for Alzheimer disease, the inception cohort typically has normal or minimally impaired complex activities of daily living (ADL). ADL change during a trial could trigger detailed evaluation or serve as an outcome measure. A brief, easily administered, and reliable ADL rating scale would assist prevention studies.

Objectives

To develop an ADL scale for prevention trials that allows self-rating or completion by informants.

Methods

The Activities of Daily Living-Prevention Instrument (ADL-PI) was developed, comprising 15 ADL and 5 physical function questions. Six hundred forty-four elderly subjects participating in the Prevention Instrument Project completed a self-rated version of the ADL-PI, and informants for 632 subjects completed an informant version. Informants also completed a Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) ADL questionnaire to allow comparisons.

Results

Subjects performed well on all ADL scales at baseline. Completion of the ADL-PI questionnaires at home or in-clinic yielded comparable information. Scores from baseline to 3 months had good reliability. The ADL-PI, obtained from either self-report or informants, discriminated between subjects rated as CDR 0 and CDR 0.5. Subjects with worse baseline cognitive performance also had slightly worse ADL-PI scores. Preliminary analysis indicates that subjects who triggered cognitive evaluations had slightly lower baseline ADL-PI scores by both self and informant reports.

Conclusions

The ADL-PI can be completed at home or in clinic, and has adequate reliability. The utility of self-administered and informant versions and predictive value of reported deficits requires further follow-up.

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