Expression of the Chemokines IP-10 and Mig in IL-10 Transduced Tumors
Several laboratories have reported marked tumor inhibition when the cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is overexpressed as a transgene in a variety of tumor cells. To identify critical effector molecules, we compared the expression of the chemokine crg-2, the murine homolog of human inducible protein 10 (human IP-10) in murine mammary tumors derived from the transplantation of six IL-10 expressing clones of tumor cell line 66.1, parental 66.1, or 66-neo-cells. We observed increased levels of IP-10 mRNA in all IL-10-expressing tumors examined in comparison to 66-neo. IP-10 mRNA was not detected in parental 66.1 tumors. The closely related chemokine Mig (monokine induced by interferon-γ [IFN-γ]) was also induced in all IL-10-expressing tumors. Studies of cultured tumor cells in vitro show that mammary epithelial tumor cells, in the absence of host elements, can express IP-10 and Mig in response to induction with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or IFN-γ alone. The combination of LPS plus IFN-γ resulted in even greater induction of IP-10 RNA. The kinetics of induction differ somewhat for the two chemokines, with IP-10 showing slower induction and less rapid decline. Because both Mig and IP-10 are chemotactic for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, we examined the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in these tumors. Consistent with the upregulation of Mig and IP-10, we saw significantly increased numbers of CD8+ cells and a lesser increase in CD4+ cells in tumors with elevated levels of both chemokines.