Fear-avoidance Beliefs, Physical Activity, and Disability in Elderly Individuals With Chronic Low Back Pain and Healthy Controls

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Abstract

Objective

Research studies focussing on the fear-avoidance beliefs model (FABM) have expanded considerably during the last years, however, there has been very little research directed at the elderly. The objective of the present study was to investigate the validity of the FABM in older patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP).

Method

In a cross-sectional study, a group of elderly patients with CLBP (N=103) was compared with an age-matched group of pain-free individuals (N=59) to test the constructs inherent in the FABM. Constructs include fear avoidance beliefs (FABs), disability, disuse, and physical activity. In addition, the relationship of these constructs was also investigated in the patient group. CLBP-patients had an average age of 71.41 years (SD=5.2) and pain-free individuals of 71.19 years (SD=4.73). Individuals participated in a photographed series of physical activities adapted to the age group (Photograph Series of Daily Activities-German version for the elderly) for the assessment of FAB, in the Hannover Disability Questionnaire, in the Freiburg Physical Activity Questionnaire, and in an ultrasound measurement to evaluate lumbar flexion. In addition, they completed an activity diary for 1 week. Before computation, the physical activity measurements were converted into metabolic units that characterize energy expenditure.

Results

In the patient group, FAB, pain intensity, and age predicted functional capacity, but not physical activity. Lumbar flexion was predicted by FAB and age. Patients were more fear-avoidant, reported more disability, and displayed less lumbar flexion than the pain-free individuals. No differences between the groups could be detected in regard to energy expenditure measured either by the questionnaire or by diary data.

Conclusions

The findings are consistent with results reported in the literature for younger age groups and confirm the assumption that the FABM is also valid for the elderly.

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