Painful legs and moving toes is a rare syndrome with controversial physiopathology. We report two cases that were relieved by applying transcutaneous vibratory simulation. The pain relief was objectively evaluated using the nociceptive flexion reflex of the lower limb (RIII reflex). In these patients, we found a deficiency in circulating adenosine levels, which was not found in other chronic painful syndromes (sciatic pain). Based on these observations, we successfully treated patients with painful legs and moving toes by the administration of ATP. The deficit in blood adenosine may be an explanation of the physiopathology of this syndrome.