The hypothesis that plasma chylomicrons in persons who ingest a cholesterol-rich diet are atherogenic is evaluated. Evidence is presented that in humans, and experimental animals, chylomicron remnants as well as low-density lipoproteins are taken up by arterial cells. In persons who do not have familial hyperlipoproteinemia, atherogenesis may occur during the postprandial period. Research directions that may contribute to the evaluation of chylomicron remnants as a risk factor for atherogenesis are discussed. Lipoprotein studies after administration of a test meal containing fat and cholesterol are urgently needed.